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By Khaled M.Kh.S Alnobani (Jordan)
www.Author-me.com Middle East editor
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Khaled M.Kh.S Alnobani, M.Sc. Chemical Engineering
Author-me., Middle East Editor
Abstract: At this point in time we, humans, have attained two symmetry axes. They are, due to repeatability myths, one over time, and the other due to human-screen interactions which make symmetry over personality. We need an engine which makes the surrounding’s capabilities available and at our disposal. We ended as a part of a mechanical existence, even our choices are taken according to a "game theory". It is a convergence-divergence point, either we choose to continue as humans or turn up as biological machines. Although we have not yet completed our first step, the engine, we claim reaching the theory of everything as. A new definition of energy is given and a new philosophy is presented. Herein is not a new formulation; it is a new understanding. Referring to the Islamic ontology of knowledge our current knowledge has an outside boundary we cannot overcome. This is out of scope however what is the end of programming, control and logic? Writing rituals.
Keywords: Energy, Time, Mass
speed of light
general coordinate system
Energy was known to be introduced to science by Galileo Galileo (1564-1642). In 1760 Joseph Plank laid the foundation of quantitative heat transfer and demonstrated the concepts of latent heat of fusion and evaporation. In 1798 Count Rumford ended the "Caloric theory" which prevailed for 50 years with a new concept of heat as motion. In the 1840s, Joule and Mayer set forth the idea that heat transfer and mechanical work were simply different forms of the same quantity. In 1848 Kelvin suggested an absolute temperature scale and used the terms "Thermodynamic" and "Mechanical energy". In 1850 Clausius constructed the first law of thermodynamics and he used the term "Entropy" for the first time. In 1859 Ranki n wrote the first thermodynamics textbook. In (1803-1889) Ericson invented the shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Gibbs (1839-1903) received the first engineering doctoral degree in the United States; in 1878 he first introduced the phase rule, the basis for the field of physical chemistry.
All the efforts were a pack of hunting hounds questing after an elusive quarry  .
When we talk about the architecture of the cosmos we must keep one thing in mind; this thing is completely mathematical and it defines the relation between us and the surroundings. It is the equal sign. The equal sign is an operator like any other operator but more it operates on both sides at the same time. It is more important because it tells where we are. With the perspective of this paper it is not a routine to rearrange an equation. The equation:
has an ontological existence but not where x is not defined with a real number. It seems so simple but imagine that is wanted in a trade deal, can we add something to one and sell it for nothing. The economical reasons that made the calculus readable are working here to tell that until now the equality operator is not used properly.
Energy as we know is a concern of whatever in motion. Heat is motion. We think we know contact forces and zero sum work fields. The none settable dispute is over forces on distances or space. Both statements of the second law of thermodynamics state that the reverse of Carnot cycle cannot occur naturally, which means that any cyclic operation based on Carnot cycle which has a forward chronological order cannot have a backward natural process.
The general equation for energy and Schrödinger equation are only imaginations and have no ontological existence more than probability numbers.
As this is a complex equation the projection of it on the real axes is the way to reach physical phenomena’s calculations. Because of this equation we cannot think of energy as an identity separated from matter. According to the uncertainties in the results and the wide diversity of how to approach the subject a new concept is proposed: Energy is an equilibrium between two different phases of time, the phase of time in space outside what we call matter and the crystallized phase of time in matter space which is the matter itself. The concept of motion for energy is replaced by time-space interactions.
Motion enhances the exchange between the mass and its surrounding time in space; relativistic mechanics gives rise to special forms of this exchange, annihilation and creation. During the motion of a mass it decreases as a result of this dissolution. Matter of time concentration in Fock space is responsible for the collision phenomena in physics.
Mathematical operators are instructions that a mathematical operation is to be performed; momentum and energy are examples of mathematical operators. The Hamiltonian operator in Schrödinger equation represents the total energy of the system; in differential form energy does not change unless the probability function of the distribution of mass has changed with time. The quantity called mass enters the equations through its coefficients and not the function which the operators’ instructions perform their operations on. Time with this respect must be distinguished from chronological order axes; any thing could happen to the earlier but the later is an invariant sequential property; time could go backward with respect to a certain process but for the rest of the universe even the backward process is proceeding forward.
The time current surrounding us is composed of relative time spans between solid concentrations of time; what we call matter is composed of a unique certain spans of time each characterized by its own period. The electron is a string of concentrated time surrounding the nucleus; each slice with a different span. Energy is a change of time spans within space irrespective of what has caused them. Mass concentration vanishes when the span of the concentrated phase (matter) intersects with the span of the time within the surrounding time current; it means that matter is actually distributed in space to infinity distance and chains of time joins and restricts all objects. As the moving objects retain their mass when decreasing their velocity then the equilibrium exchange of time during motion is reversible and because this phenomenon occurs at different places this means that time is homogeneous and memorizes the mechanics of objects within it.
Mass during motion is a dynamic value and as such an operator associated with it. There is a definite relation between annihilation and creation operators; one is the adj oint of the other. As we are concerned with real mass axis this means that with respect to mass operator annihilation is the transpose of creation. With this respect mass operator is a Hermitian operator. When changing the phase of time between solid material and overall relative surrounding time current the related identities disintegrates. The given relation for mass operator in relativistic mechanics:
Where the annihilation is given by:
The kinetic energy operator is given in terms of the annihilation by:
When two quantities are related through the uncertainty principle then upon this thesis, there could be an exchange between them.
The timeless space surroundings of the universe could be visualized as a plane without line, or, a volume without line and area; it is the same point extended in existence. A relation between kinetic energy and mass could be concluded from equations (1) and (2).
This formulation states that our creation began with infinite mass and our un-bounded kinetic energy annihilated it to the observed mass. We can go back and recover more mass by the mere decrease of our kinetic energy. The strange thing is that we noticed this behavior of mass in the universe as dark matter before observing it in the laboratory.
As time and energy does not commute then plank’s constant with units of time multiplied by energy is not as what it looks like; the relation between the tow quantities is not primary or straight forward. The analysis is not restricted to a system in Hilbert space. As time and energy does not commute, the presence of Plank’s constant imposes different perspectives of time, first as a processes evolution axes which does not commute with energy and second, as a span value, which commutes with energy depending on the usage of Plank constant. Time as a period with a span does commute with energy, which means that the value of time which interconverts to matter (or equivalently energy) is not a span of time but a process time evolution. Is there a time-space process? Is stretching or squeezing complete vacuum space system has some kind of effect on the system surroundings? Could these processes be found inside the boundaries of our universe? Have we ever been concerned with the “Nothingness?” Had we ever thought of utilizing it? We must remember vacuum space is always a thing. In chemical reactions energy is produced as a result of the redistribution of electron’s masses; they are mass-space interactions; time pass whenever the change is proceeding. If processes cease to exist in this universe time will stop passing. Time is a criterion of changes. Energy has yet four distinctive representations: internal energy, non-flow availability or Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and flow availability or Helmholtz energy. With the help of mere observations, energy as we know could be born within three kinds of fields: electrical, magnetic and gravitational; It is known that time stretches within the last field.
In chemical reactions energy is produced as a result of the redistribution of electron’s masses; they are mass-space interactions; time pass whenever the change is proceeding. If processes cease to exist in this universe time will stop passing. Time is a criterion of changes.
Energy has yet four distinctive representations: internal energy, non-flow availability or Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and flow availability or Helmholtz energy. With the help of mere observations, energy as we know could be born within three kinds of fields: electrical, magnetic and gravitational; It is known that time stretches within the last field.
The approaches for thermodynamics differ about the point of view from which one is looking to his system. The molecular-microscopic level is different from the macro-system level. Until now, there is but one way of getting information; beginning with experiments and ending with unknowns. Thermodynamics in its essence is an applied mathematical science and it retains the qualities of mathematical science illusionary nature. It has a few empirical none proved laws which are totally dependent on observations and experimentation; the rest are mathematics of equations and formulas. Obtaining energy from our surroundings depends on finding or artificially making a non-equilibrium state which takes a path back to equilibrium by losing energy. The three signs of energy wealth in a system are: motion, temperature difference and/or radiation.
Dark energy which is relatively a new concept has a nature and properties which still a complete mystery (because the whole concept is hypothetical) but the effect is sure. Dark energy does not dilute with the expansion of the universe. The total energy of the universe is neither conserved nor lost- it is just indefinable; this is what Tamara M. Davis’s work rises. It rises an inquisitive questioning but dares not to answer. Dark energy term appeared because the universe is expanding with acceleration which needs a continuous supply of energy what they called “Dark”.
Now there are three steps taken by energy to reach us, energy content (internal or enthalpy), availability (flow or non-flow), efficiency of our invented engines, and practicality (our materials and processes limitations). Until now we have not passed the engine point, our first obstacle, and we want to reach the end of the tunnel without passing every brick of it.
If we imagine that the way is something we know or can know without being well behaved then we are totally wrong. Our driving force for more knowledge being making wars is totally unethical. This ethicality is transformed out of us to meet our first rejecter, energy. Clean energy is anything which gives without taking; as we have never done that, the surroundings are rude enough to treat us diplomatically. The system should be unstable with respect to our dead state in order to extract energy out of it; dams, wend mills, burners, turbines, nuclear reactors, solar energy collectors and engines are all unclean if we found sometime that it requires us to compromise our living for theirs’.
Once nuclear energy reached our disposal we thought we had reached a source with no limits; we trusted materials more than good behavior. At Chernobyl, the operators were experimenting over their working engine; they looked to the process as managing a tool, not driving a car, when changing direction a different destination.
When we will reach a conclusion saying "Do not trust instruments"? The answer is that when we put some logic in those instruments and discover that another player (The artificial intelligence) is in the environment and part of the rules of the game theory? If we reached that point, we have crystallized a God - isn't this what we are working for? Warring for a flag (a piece of texture) and a text which we take years to understand or agree on a suitable understanding of it.
Webster’s dictionary meaning of “Postulate” is: a hypothesis advanced as an essential presupposition, condition, or premise of a train of reasoning; other meaning is axiom. Its relation to its founder is "it is his assumption." Where are our certainties about laws of nature in our postulated thermodynamics science? We are taking out of it more than it puts in; this is a mere disbelief in it.
As our universe does not realize that Mr. Man has utilized some of the energy (created) by the engine, we are continuously pumping energy to the dead state of our boundary closed universe as mechanical work. Because of all of this, until now we could not find the origin of the black energy; that is solely because it is a kind of transformation within the same form of work energy; it springs under our seats. What we call an engine is actually creating energy that has never been found or was intended to be found in our universe. The overall process is a typical perpetual-motion machine of the second kind, which states: "A heat engine which produces no other effects than the extraction of heat from a single source and the production of an equivalent amount of work." One might argue that the dark energy is so huge for such a limited source; this is not the case if we are resonating.
As there is an a flow streamline inside the universe within an expansion movement and this expansion is symmetrical then the boundary of our universe is a free surface.
“What is out there?” Thinking of a metaphysical existence is totally not scientific. The existence of time and space without matter is a requirement for the discontinuity at the boundary or the existence of a boundary; this means that outside the boundary of the universe there is no time; time is the basic constituent of matter and changes.
A timeless-space (space without time) is given by:
Where Ψ is not normalized in this equation and it is not a function of time. This is at the time-free surface boundary of the universe. It must be emphasized that the mass operator and the kinetic energy operator have a similar shape.
The need of existence of counterwork at the boundary is a requirement for the limited expansion of the universe; if it is not present the universe will have a solid boundary or infinite one with no expansion. Outside our universe is a potential field building a growing force against our expansion.
Energy inside the universe is motion and there is a significant reasoning to conclude that in time-space, energy is time-space interactions; energy is produced by the mere passing of time and changing of place. Our universe does not recognize inside it a "Dead state." Surely Mr. (Man) has extracted heat and transformed it totally into work using his engine. The car work produced from the combustion of fuel does not simply disappear after we drive to our destination; it completes the cycle of entropy. Exergy is our most miss understood concept; it means producing heat.
The concept (availability) is the second step that completes the conversion of the extracted heat into work. The whole process is creating energy; we call "Dark." The condensation front of the wave of this created energy at the frontiers of the universe is accelerating our expansion. The universe is getting old very rapidly and we are living an extended periods but without perceiving them.
On the scientific conceptual level there are fundamental errors in understanding processes. Regulating Insulin in the blood and Dopamine in the brain is a total fundamental mistake. The reason is that these chemicals are prevented to enter the human body system at any condition. If regulating them is an option for our health then there should be no barriers for their entrance from the environment. Depending totally on biochemistry and forcing their regulation is putting things in their wrong place and abuse of using our tools.
Our problems began when someone said: "We see a thing because it reflects light"; this was the first perception solved paradox. The phase of civilization which solved this paradox was changed and another phase completed the train of reasoning but with different values (ways of interacting with the surroundings). The train of reasoning used for discovering the laws of nature was different from that used to initiate their knowledge. The west apparently has lost its last logical reasoning foundation (Argument form logic-based) with accepting string theory, so a unified logical reasoning approach was adopted in this work to overcome what has been abandoned.
One argument might rise: why our matter (as it is some kind of time) not dissolves in the huge current of time surrounding it or in the timeless existence outside the boundaries of the universe; we will vanish and disappear. This paradox might deem the proposal of this thesis not logical. On the contrary, this paradox exists and we should live with rather than solving it. The only solution is the presence of outside will that keeps our existence on.
The ideas about time and cosmos outside surrounding included in this paper forces certain cosmos architecture. Some time in the future and due to the illusionary nature of mathematics we would find many convincing formulations, like or more convincing than string theory. The main finding of this article is the end of conservation laws as we know them. The possible solutions for the mass Hermitian may lead to a concentric multi-verse; this will answer the question “Where the rest of the given infinite created mass went for.” This will answer the questions about our cosmos architecture and why it is stable within the timeless-space surrounding it. However the dilemma of travelling is solved, within the scope of this article, who wants to travel can switch to a sub-universe and return in another location, it is as simple as that. It is always possible to return after a few hundreds or thousands of years but not one step back.
The more powerful we are the less controlling we will be.
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