EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ADVERTISEMENTS ON STUDENTS Researcher:
ALI ABDOSAMADI Aim:
"Impact of alcoholic ads to attract students" ABSTRACT
Drinking alcohol, little by little, became a normal behavior among youth despite it is non-recommended in this age. But in several times it was seen the tendency of youth especially university students to drink. They have their own explanations to consume alcohol but, this article considers the effects of alcohol advertisements via (outdoor, radio, T.V, internet, journals, billboards) to have a kind of tendency to alcohol.
Briefly, this article is going to verify the effects of advertisements and tendency or by other word the passion of students to consume alcohol. SAMPLES
It sounds so important to mention that EASTERN MEDITERANEAN UNIVERSITY (EMU) in North Cyprus, Famagusta students are selected as samples. May 2014 is considered for determining the time for checking their passion by using this factor. How many times frequently they consume alcohol in this duration?
Drinking alcoholic beverages has become a normal behavior in society. And right now in T.V, movie theatres, magazines and all kinds of media there are several types of alcoholic beverages. This kind of beverages is non-recommended in general but why the advertisements are increasing day to day?
In some cases even people prefer to drink alcoholic beverage and beers (in occasion of parties or even when they feel sad and depressed). This tendency is seen in students in universities. Although the alcoholic beverages for students are non-recommended and there is no alcoholic sellers in campus but the tendency is increasing. But why?
This research has considered the factor of advertisement for absorbing students to have this kind of tendency. Advertisement is known as the best way by which the consumer will be excited to consume a production (for example alcoholic beverages) by a considerable name (or brand). But how?
It is also important to be mentioned that there are several kinds of media in the world and absolutely, there are several alcoholic ad designs appropriate and suitable for each kind of media for absorbing audiences.
This research is based on alcoholic ad effects on students who are considered as targeted audiences and absolutely consumers of alcohol. As mentioned before , these students are studying in EMU university.
It sounds so important to be mentioned here the topic of alcohol and other subjects which are related to alcohol and advertisement are so known and under considerations of researchers entire the world because of alcohol effects especially on youth. By continuing of this section of article, the results of many previous researches will be verified on the considered age range. The results of ads are general in society but in presented articles this range of age has been verified. Let's have a look:
Commissioner for children and young people in Western Australia has published an article under the title "young people speak out about alcohol and sport" in 2012 and verifies the role of alcohol advertisement in sports programs and stadiums. Generally, in this article, the role of alcohol ads have been verified as an inseparable part in sportive situations and even the alcohol has mentioned like a culture.
But generally, alcohol drink is not recommended in sport and especially in match times. Although it became as a cultural rite of life in the above article.
In an article under the title" Alcohol counter-advertising and the media" wrote by Gina Agostinelli, Ph.D., and Joel W. Grube, Ph.D. the alcoholic ads have been verified and also the role of media literacy has been under consideration of writer. That means if an ad has been occurred in radio-T.V or outdoor or other kinds of advertisements media, the targeted audience has to be aware and especially when this ad is about alcohol especially because of its dangers. And more specific because of non-recommended and non controlled behaviors after drinking.
In "Policy statement on sponsorship by alcohol brands" by European sponsorship association" the role of some banned situations for these kinds of ads has been verified. The mentioned article also studied the role of sponsorship and sport in stadiums and sportive programs. The article is available on website of European Sponsorship Association.
In alcoholic advertisements, another term sounds so important especially in mass advertising (Television) and that's the role of marketers. As mentioned in Hard Time: Liquor Advertising Pours into TV by E.J.SCHULTZ the role of marketers to promote their productions by a massive media like T.V is very important. By other hand, even the most famous and popular brands of alcoholic wins prefer to show themselves by a massive media as T.V. it is also important to know in several part of time in T.V history especially in USA alcoholic brand were banned to be promoted but after long time it is promoting in specific times like 11:00 pm.
John HOPKINS BLOOMBERGS has published an article about the influence of advertisement of alcoholic beverages under the title "ALCOHOL ADVERTISEMENT AND YOUTH" and regardless of the culture of family factor, has concluded briefly that the alcoholic ads on T.V and other public media has extremely effects on under ages to drink.
G. Hacker’s Alcohol Policies Project reported also that exactly youth and teenagers are targeted by alcoholic ads.
So, it can be argued policy politics to control alcoholic ads and their effects in public broadcasts.
Henry SAFFER in his article ALCOHOL ADVERTISING AND YOUTH has mentioned:
"The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (1999) maintains that alcohol advertising and marketing are factors in the environment that help create problems of underage drinking and college high-risk drinking."
And actually, he's reason because there is no alcohol ad designed by designers and marketers which use old people to promote all to drink. But the role of education and knowledge is also so important especially between youth. For example, in alcoholic ads there are several figures that are so happy to drink but in real life it is so different. At least driving is not recommended to drinkers. This subject is stated in an article under the title "ALCOHOL ADVERTISNG AND KIDS-TEACHING BACKGROUNDER" by MEDIA SMART INSTITUTION in CANADA that kids are not recommended or in many cases are forbidden to drink alcohol but when a child watch an alcoholic ad for example on T.V screen he or she is excited to do as the actor or advertisement do by alcohol products. And it sounds so important and dangerous for young teenagers and kids to imitate them.
By other hand, maybe, it is convenient to rename actual research to:
Media literacy and alcohol consumption
Let's have a simple question: Imagine there is a T.V station owned by an alcoholic beverages company to promote its productions. If it promotes every second alcoholic beverages, so do every one have to consume its productions?
Actually the answer is: No. the factory is going to promote its productions (advertisement) and audience has this right to consume it or not by following his culture, media literacy and also so many cultural factors. This subject has been mentioned in a research article by Lesley A SmithandDavid R Foxcroft under the name "The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behavior in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort"studies: as a result it is convenient to state that they believe there is a direct relation between alcohol advertisement and its consumption. They have mentioned also the crucial role of media in promoting a production as alcohol for especially young people. They have this consequence that the ads especially by T.V has a direct impact on teenager and youth.
Briefly, in above passage the role of media literacy is hidden. But, if someone has media literacy cannot be influenced by ads, especially alcoholic ads? As stated in above article, the role of family, society and in total the personal culture sounds very important to consumption of alcohol. Especially in term of religious characteristics that means the alcohol is avoided by religious people. Why? Because of culture and media literacy! Actually, the dangerous results of alcohol consumptions are not recommended in entire the world.
Also T.N.Robinson, H.L.Chen and J.D.Killen in their article "Television and Music Video Exposure and Risk of Adolescent Alcohol Use" have proclaimed as their results that the consumption of alcohol is growing up in baseline television hours viewing.
And as the conclusion in mentioned article this sentence is shining: Increased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents.
The results of all articles without any expect have shown that the media ads have directly influences on their audiences. And just there are two or three factors by which ads audiences never drink alcohol like religious beliefs and sport and driving. Especially, the influences on youth are considered in actual research.
Craig F. Garfield, MD, MA, Paul J. Chung, MD, MS and Paul J. Rathouz have considered the direct influences of alcoholic ads in their article "ALCOHOL ADVERTISING IN MAGAZINES AND ADOLESCENT READERSHIP" and have verified the role of ads and progressing of ads through media to cover youth and huge investigation in this section as promotion to absorb audience. In this research there are several kinds of statistics which sound so interesting to have a look:
In 2000, the alcohol industry spent $1.42 billion on advertising through television, radio, print, and outdoor advertisements, which is a 17% increase from 1999.
In the book "ADVERTISING, ALCOHOL CONSUMEPTION AND ABUSE A WORLD WIDE SURVEY" by J.C. FISHER these sentences have been mentioned:
"Mass media and advertising effects on drinking behavior, as proposed by social learning theory, are predicated on ubiquity of models in the environment who receive no negative consequences from drinking."
In other part of this book the influence of alcohol ads is mentioned as:
"The content of the alcohol portrayal on television also appears to be conducive to behavioral learning. Alcohol use on television rarely results on negative consequences for the user, alcoholics are infrequently depicted and use is almost never sanctioned by significant others. Combined with the frequency of drinking models, the nonnegative consequences of televised portrayals would suggest ample opportunity to teach drinking behavior and stimulate consumption."
And as a final conclusion in the book :
"A summary of the conclusions that seem warranted based on the empirical studies reported in the literature are presented. Advertising appears to have a very weak positive influence on consumption and no impact on experimentation with alcohol or abuse of it."
By following the mentioned articles, this research is based on alcoholic ads and its effects on consumption near students who are studying in EMU UNIVERSITY as mentioned before. Absolutely, here, it seems also very convenient to be mentioned that media's effects are briefly attitudinal and behavioral that means first, it is going to change attitudes and thoughts of targeted audiences about a subject like a production and then excites them to do whatever the marketer and generally producers want. By other hand, an advertisement (especially alcohol ads as the topic of actual research) is going to excite its audience to go to markets, buy and consume a defined product. This article concentrate on this process on alcohol as the defined product and EMU students as targeted audience and a questioner based on quantitative method to achieve to the results.
This section of article is divided to two parts: method of research and measures and samples. As methodology of research on this article, it is important to be mentioned that the quantitative method is considered.
And about measures and sampling, it is also convenient to explain a complete list of measures (some of these are including samples that means all factors by which students can answer). That is also important here to mention, EMU students are selected as samples in this study by some factors like:
After determining characteristics of students as samples in this research, it sounds so convenient to have a look to the alcohol advertisements through several kinds of media( Radio, T.V, Billboard, Outdoors, Internet, journal). Also, it is so important to mention that the power of each kid of these media is different than other one.
For example, maybe alcohol advertisement, as a radio ad, has less public influence then T.V because television is a combination of voice and image. So this kind of media is more influential then radio. But about print versions of advertisement it will be very different. The role of color is so crucial and influential. Absolutely, billboards are the biggest versions of print media which can be more considerable.
After billboards journals are so important to verify but by considering the size. Because, maybe a good design (especially for alcohol) doesn't have any opportunity to go on billboards but it is more influential and more famous to be consumed (or by other word to be drunk).
Now days, Internet is known as the most popular media. Also, in famous websites there are several kinds of advertisements which can include alcoholic ads. Sometimes ads through internet are motional and sometimes there are only scanned versions of outdoors ads.
By answering to the questions and analyzing them by SPSS system, the behavioral impacts of alcohol advertisements will be clear. Actually in this case study, behavioral impacts and effects are more considered then other kinds of impacts.
Also, in this case study there are some options which can be choose by who don't drink alcohol because of religious or health causes( like for example athletes). Despite, all sportive pretexts to do not drink alcohol, there are several alcoholic advertisements in clubs or on sport times in television channels. But in religious cases it is very different that means there is even no alcohol ad as a little outdoor near a place like mosque or church. In this study religion and sport are both two pretexts of who don't want to be attracted by alcoholic ads.
By following methodology and sampling section, let's have a look to complete questioner:
Age category :
A:18-22 B:23-30 C:31-35 D:Older then 35
A: Male B: Female
A: Bachelor B: Master C: PHD
A:Single B: Married
Which kind of media is more attractive for you?
A: outdoor B:T.V C:Radio D:Internet E:Journals F: Billboard
Do you drink alcohol?
A: Yes B:No
If no, what is your cause?
A: Religious believes B: Sportive causes C: Driving D:Other causes
If yes, how many times during a month ago did you have alcohol?
A: 1 Time B:2 Times C: 3 Times D:more
Which kind of alcohol ad attracts more your attention?
A: outdoor B:T.V C:Radio D:Internet E:Journals F: Billboard
During which kind of T.V programs you watch more alcoholic ads?
A: Movies B:Sport matches C:Live T.V shows
How do you analyzing the effects of alcohol in your education process?
A: No effect B: Good effects C: Bad effects
During which kind of T.V programs, do you drink more alcohol?
A: Sports B:Movies C:T.V show
How many times do you see alcoholic ads in restaurants?
A:Some times B:Always C:Never
In which kind of media?
A:T.V B: Radio C:Printed ads
Do those alcoholic ads excite you to drink?
A:Yes B:No C:Some times
Today alcohol is one of the most favorate industries of entire the world which is forebiden in many countries specially in islamic countries by islamic governments. This industry like all kind of other industries needs promotion to attract the attentions of audiences and have a kind of competition between all brands of this industry"alcoholic beverages". This promotion can be done just by advertisement. Advertisement and alcohol consumption is actually the main aim of this article. As the case study, EMU students have been selected to verify the impact of alcoholic advertisement and its consumption between them. Let' have a look to final results and analyzes:
In this research, 50 students of EMU university were as study case and there were just 15 questions to determine the effect of advertisement to drink and by other word to consume alcohol. The questioner is attached to the article. As the results have mentioned, students were classified in 3 sections by regarding their age category: 18-22, 23-30 and 31-more. There were a huge number of students in the first category that means they are normally in bachelor. And the category between 23-30 are estimated to be in master and the last category are maybe in PHD but it can also have some exception. Also, in this research the number of females is more than males by regarding sexuality. In marital option for identifying more the targeted audience in mentioned university there are more single students than married.
For identifying the most popular media T.V is the first one between 5 others. After that internet is more attractive and after that outdoors are mentioned so attractive than others. Actually, almost, there is no attraction for journals or radio or billboards in comparing by these 3 above attractive media. Targeted audiences have consumed alcohol in a mount ago more than 3 times. This repetition was about who drink alcohol but there were some students who don't drink alcohol because of religious believes, driving, sport and so many personal causes. As mentioned in questioner, there this research is generally about alcohol ad and its role to consume alcoholic beverages. Between 6 kinds of media (Outdoor, T.V, Radio, Internet, Journal and billboard) outdoors attract more attentions at least about the main subject of this article. Internet is in second place, T.V in third and fourth is for billboards. It sounds maybe so interesting to be mentioned that radio and journals didn't attract any attention of actual research.
The effect of alcohol was analyzed generally neuter that means there is no effect of alcohol on studies of targeted students. Several numbers of students have mentioned also alcohol has had a bad effect on studies but the statistic number is so low than who have mentioned there were no effects. And finally, there were just a little members of the targeted students have mentioned the good effects of alcohol on their studies. Another factor as a question in the questioner was about T.V program and during which kind of T.V programs students watch more alcoholic advertisements? There were 3 options: sport programs, movies and T.V shows. Between these 3 selections sport programs are in high levels. Despite the alcohol consumption is not recommended for sport athletes, during sport programs on T.V there are several number of alcoholic advertisement which are attracting attentions of T.V audiences. And this is an interesting contrast: sport and alcohol are not accorded by each other but sponsors prefer to show their alcoholic productions through sportive programs on T.V screen. After the sport programs, movies have selected as a kind of T.V programs during it there are several alcoholic advertisements and finally T.V shows are the final option during it alcoholic ads are watched.
Restaurants are places in where there are many alcoholic ads because of its suitable place for drinking. In questioner, this question was mentioned" HOW MANY TIMES DO YOU SEE ALCOHOLIC ADS IN RESTAURANTS?" and there were 3 options: 1Some times 2Always and finally 3Never.Actualy, the responses can be classified like: Sometimes was above and Always and Never have had equality. Another option in restaurant was the advertisement's media which means in which kind of media in restaurants do students see more alcoholic ads? Through 3 kind of media as T.V, Radio and printed media, television was in highest place, printed media were in second and radio was in last place of this question that means, generally, T.V is more attractive media for audiences and between its programs sport, as mentioned before have more alcoholic advertisements or by other hand, more alcoholic sponsors. As wrote in questioner, the last question is about excitation of alcoholic advertisements to consume it. There are also three options: 1Yes 2No 3Some times. No is the most popular answer that means these ads didn't excite audience of this research to consume alcohol. Second place is for Some times that means clearly, sometimes the audience is going to consume alcohol by regarding these advertisements. And finally, Yes is in the final place and that means there are just rarity students who are excited to consume alcohol.
By other words, television is more attractive media and outdoor and then Radio are more attractive for Emu student.but alcoholic ads are more attractive through outdoors then through internet then through television and finally billboards. During T.V talk shows there are more alcoholic ads then this place is for sport matchs and then movies. But during sport matchs these targeted students drink more alcohol and after that this place is for movie and finally T.V shows. Also television is most selected media through it there are several alcoholic beverages watched in restaurants. After T.V this place is for printed ads and after that is radio.
Briefly, by following results of actual research, television is the most attractive kind of media for targeted EMU students but outdoor is more saw about the topic of alcoholic ads. Most of the students are studying in bachelor. The students who drink alcohol are less than who don't drink. So, the final result is negative. That means, the effect of alcohol doesn't excite EMU students to drink it. Maybe if the targeted audience in this research were in another space they have had enough opportunity to use and consume alcohol more and more because in an educational space like university they need a serious attention to read and continue their lessons and home works. Maybe if the targeted members were in other situations, they have enough and suitable conditions to drink alcohol and absolutely the alcoholic advertisements were more powerful than it. Also, maybe it is suitable here to write that the alcoholic beverages don't target educational audiences but through a massive media there are so many audiences by so many cultures and so many kind of feedback to consume alcohol or not. But generally in this research, alcoholic ads don't have enough power to give intention to EMU students to drink alcoholic beverages.
As the results of the researches have been demonstrated, between EMU selected students, the alcoholic advertisements don't have any effect to consume it. Selected students are older than 35 years old. Several numbers of them are in bachelor. T.V is favorite kind of media and absolutely has more influence on its audience. Outdoor advertisements are more attractive in alcohol consumption then others. But several numbers of students have mentioned that there is no effect of alcohol in their studies. Briefly, in this case study, the advertisement doesn't have any influence to excite audiences to use and consume alcoholic productions.
BOOK AND ARTICLES
ADVERTISING, ALCOHOL CONSUMEPTION AND ABUSE A WORLD WIDE SURVEY , JOSEPH.C. FISHER, GREEN WOOD PRESS 1993.
ALCOHOL ADVERTISING IN MAGAZINS AND ADOLESCENT READERSHIP, Garfield CF, Chung PJ, Rathouz, PJ, 2003.
Alcohol Counter-Advertising and the Media, Agostinelli, G, Grube, J.W, PACIFIC INSTITUDE FOR RESEARCH AND EVALUATION, 2002.
ALCOHOL ADVERTRISING YOUTH , SAFFER. H, NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, 2005.
the effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behavior in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort,A.S, Lesley, Foxcroft,D,R, BMC Public Health 2009.
Hard Time: Liquor Advertising Pours Into TV -- Looser Restrictions, Raft of New
Launches Lead More Booze Brands to the Tube, E.JSCHULTZ, 2012.
The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behavior in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies, A.S, Lesley, Foxcroft,D,R, BMC pub, 2009.
Television and Music Video Exposure and Risk of Adolescent Alcohol Use by ROBINSON,T.N, MD, MPH and Chen, H.L and Killen,J,D PhD, 1998